Fully integrated solutions for materials characterisation
Materials Characterisation Systems
Lake Shore offers a comprehensive range of fully integrated solutions for materials characterisation for measuring AC/DC Hall effect, magnetic and electronic properties, THz spectroscopy and more...
Hall Effect Measurement (HMS) Systems
Lake Shore's fully integrated Hall effect measurement systems (HMS) are used to characterise physical properties in semiconductors, as well as other electronic materials including magnetoresistors, multilayer magnetic films, dilute magnetic semiconductors, superconductors, and spintronics devices.
Available in two electromagnet-based configurations ranging in fields up to 2.37 T or a 9 T superconducting magnet-based configuration, Lake Shore HMS are ideally suited for the most demanding materials research applications, product development, and quality control. An assortment of options expands the functionality of Lake Shore HMS.
Model 8400 Series AC/DC Field Hall Effect Systems
Green energy, efficient lighting, and high power device applications demand novel electronic and semiconductor materials: materials that possess electronic properties that are increasingly difficult to measure due to their low charge carrier mobilities and the high temperatures needed to characterise high powered devices.
The DC field measurement technique has usually been sufficient to measure materials with mobilities down to approximately 1 cm2/Vs. However, below this level it has been challenging to extract the small Hall voltage from the background noise that is produced by these emerging classes of photovoltaic, thermoelectric and organic electronic materials.
Lake Shore's 8400 Series Hall Effect Measurement Systems have an AC field Hall measurement option capable of measuring sample dependent mobilities down to 0.001 cm2/Vs, allowing you to measure most exotic materials with ease.
A catalogue is downloadable form the Documents menu (upper right) or, for more information that also include video demonstrations, visit the Lake Shore Blog.
HMS systems feature hardware with electromagnet and superconducting magnet based platforms that can measure samples with resistances ranging from 10 µΩ to 200 GΩ, provide fields to 9 T, temperatures from 2 K to 800 K, accommodate samples up to 6" in diameter, or measure up to 4 consecutive samples without a hardware change. Full details of these products can be found in the HMS Catalogue downloadable from the Related Documents menu upper right.
Software features include Windows Explorer navigation interface, experiment profiles with multiple measurement steps and samples, complete details of every voltage measurement, predefined measurement sequences, offline data viewing, contact formation, and depletion layer corrections.
The HMS measurement capabilities include: Hall coefficient, Hall voltage, resistance, resistivity, magnetoresistance, I-V curves, carrier concentration and mobility. The HMS measures most compound semiconductor materials including pHEMTS, SiGe, SiC, InAs, InGaAs, InP, AlGaAs, HgCdTe, and ferrites; low resistance materials including metals, transparent oxides, dilute magnetic semiconductors, and TMR materials; and high resistance materials including semi-insulating GaAs and GaN, CdTe, and photodetectors.
Quantitative Mobility Spectrum Analysis (QMSA) software technique analyses variable magnetic field Hall data to resolve individual carrier mobilities and densities in multi-carrier devices. The QMSA software's reliability and sensitivity make it the ideal technique for routine characterisation of various multi-carrier materials and high mobility heterostructure devices. QMSA also has several advantages over previous conduction analysis techniques in that QMSA is fully automated, it does not require advance sample information, and it simultaneously provides individual carrier density and mobility (not an average over all the carriers).
Standard sample resistance ranges from 0.04 mΩ to 200 GΩ
Fields to 9 Tesla
Temperatures from 2 K to 400 K
Measure up to 4 samples consecutively without a hardware change
Quantitative Mobility Spectrum Analysis (QMSA) resolves individual carrier mobilities and densities in multi-carrier devices
THz Characterisation Systems
8500 series THz System
The Lake shore 8500 Series THz Characterisation System has been delveloped over two years in close collaboration with leading materials research institutions to validate the capabilities and measurement methodologies of this system. Now Lake Shore is making the 8500 Series THz system commercially available to all researchers who strive to be at the forefront of their field.
The new Lake Shore Model 8501 THz System is the first affordable, integrated, convenient solution specifically tailored for characterisation of research-scale electronic and magnetic materials. It enables fully automated high-resolution THz spectroscopic characterisation of electronic, magnetic, and chemical samples over a wide range of frequencies, temperatures, and magnetic fields, yielding detailed profiles of material responses.
Researchers interested in measuring spin materials can opt for an additional cryostat insert with opposite helicity THz emitter and detector to expand the instrument's capabilities.
Lake Shore's fully integrated vibrating sample magnetometers (VSM) are used to characterise the DC magnetic properties of materials as a function of magnetic field, temperature, and time. Available in three different variable gap electromagnet configurations providing fields up to 3.1 T, Lake Shore VSM systems are the most sensitive electromagnet-based VSMs commercially available and feature the broadest temperature range capability - 4.2 K to 1,273 K (-269 °C to 1000 °C). These systems measure a wide range of sample types, making them ideal tools for the most demanding materials research applications and quality control of magnetic materials.
An assortment of options, including low temperature cryostats, a high temperature oven, a single stage variable temperature assembly, vector coils, autorotation, an MR probe, and a Helmholtz coil expand the functionality of Lake Shore VSM systems.
7400 series VSM
Lake Shore's 7400 series Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) is the most sensitive VSM available today. This VSM features a noise floor of 1 x 10-7 emu at 10 seconds per point sampling, 4 x 10-7 emu at 1 second per point and 7.5 x 10-7 emu at 0.1 seconds per point. In addition to providing the lowest noise floor, this VSM's patented technology leads to a stability of 0.05% per day which surpasses the stability of any other commercial VSM.
Models based on variable gap 4", 7" and 10" electromagnets are available providing field strengths to above 3 T, and variable gap magnets allow for easy reconfiguration of the magnet gap to accommodate large samples to 1". Full details of these products can be found in the VSM Catalogue downloadable from the Documents menu upper right.
Lake Shore's Vibrating Sample Magnetometer systems can measure all types of magnetic materials in bulk, powder, thin film, single crystal, and liquid form. In addition to measuring hysteresis M(H) loops, torque curves, and temperature dependent magnetic properties, isothermal and DC demagnetisation remanence curves may be recorded under full software automation.
MicroMag™ 2900 series AGM
The MicroMag™ 2900 Series AGM is a powerful alternating gradient magnetometer system for measuring the magnetic properties of various materials. The system offers extremely high sensitivity (10 nemu rms, corresponding to less than 50 pg of iron) and speed of measurement (10 ms per point).
Combined with compact design and ease of use, you get a system that's well-suited for a number of production test, quality control, and research applications. Due to its high sensitivity, the AGM system is particularly useful for research involving materials with very low magnetic moment; it can measure materials with moments too low to measure in a VSM system.
The 2900 Series AGM also has an optional LHe variable temperature cryostat with fully integrated temperature controller if you need to perform low-temperature studies.
MicroMag™ 3900 series VSM
The MicroMag™ 3900 Series VSM establishes a new standard for magnetometer performance. It not only offers fast scans, but high repeatability and maximum versatility. Order it as a world-class VSM or specify it as a dual-head version with the capabilities of the 2900 Series AGM included.
Its major components, including its software, are fully compatible with the AGM, so you can combine techniques from both systems to measure over a wider range of applications. The integrated design of the combination MicroMag™ VSM/AGM is highly attractive in terms of economy and measurement capability.
As a VSM, the 3900 Series offers high sensitivity (0.5 µemu at 1 s/point), a fast four-quadrant power supply, and very fast scanning times, enabling you to bring greater efficiency to your lab. The system is also ideal for first-order- reversal-curve (FORC) measurements, owing to its sensitivity and speed.
Full details of the MicroMag™ systems available from Lake shore can be found in the Documents menu upper right.