Fully integrated solutions for materials characterisation
Materials Characterisation Systems
Lake Shore Cryotronics offer a comprehensive range of fully integrated solutions for materials characterisation for measuring AC/DC Hall effect, magnetic and electronic properties, THz spectroscopy and more...
Hall Effect Measurement (HMS) Systems
Lake Shore's fully integrated Hall effect measurement systems (HMS) are used to characterise physical properties in semiconductors, as well as other electronic materials including magnetoresistors, multilayer magnetic films, dilute magnetic semiconductors, superconductors, and spintronics devices.
Available in two electromagnet-based configurations ranging in fields up to 2.37 T or a 9 T superconducting magnet-based configuration, Lake Shore HMS are ideally suited for the most demanding materials research applications, product development, and quality control. An assortment of options expands the functionality of Lake Shore HMS.
Model 8400 Series AC/DC Field Hall Effect Systems
Green energy, efficient lighting, and high power device applications demand novel electronic and semiconductor materials: materials that possess electronic properties that are increasingly difficult to measure due to their low charge carrier mobilities and the high temperatures needed to characterise high powered devices.
The DC field measurement technique has usually been sufficient to measure materials with mobilities down to approximately 1 cm2/Vs. However, below this level it has been challenging to extract the small Hall voltage from the background noise that is produced by these emerging classes of photovoltaic, thermoelectric and organic electronic materials.
Lake Shore's 8400 Series Hall Effect Measurement Systems have an AC field Hall measurement option capable of measuring sample dependent mobilities down to 0.001 cm2/Vs, allowing you to measure most exotic materials with ease.
A catalogue is downloadable form the Documents menu (upper right) or, for more information that also include video demonstrations, visit the Lake Shore Blog.
HMS systems feature hardware with electromagnet and superconducting magnet based platforms that can measure samples with resistances ranging from 10 µΩ to 200 GΩ, provide fields to 9 T, temperatures from 2 K to 800 K, accommodate samples up to 6" in diameter, or measure up to 4 consecutive samples without a hardware change. Full details of these products can be found in the HMS Catalogue downloadable from the Related Documents menu upper right.
Software features include Windows Explorer navigation interface, experiment profiles with multiple measurement steps and samples, complete details of every voltage measurement, predefined measurement sequences, offline data viewing, contact formation, and depletion layer corrections.
The HMS measurement capabilities include: Hall coefficient, Hall voltage, resistance, resistivity, magnetoresistance, I-V curves, carrier concentration and mobility. The HMS measures most compound semiconductor materials including pHEMTS, SiGe, SiC, InAs, InGaAs, InP, AlGaAs, HgCdTe, and ferrites; low resistance materials including metals, transparent oxides, dilute magnetic semiconductors, and TMR materials; and high resistance materials including semi-insulating GaAs and GaN, CdTe, and photodetectors.
Quantitative Mobility Spectrum Analysis (QMSA) software technique analyses variable magnetic field Hall data to resolve individual carrier mobilities and densities in multi-carrier devices. The QMSA software's reliability and sensitivity make it the ideal technique for routine characterisation of various multi-carrier materials and high mobility heterostructure devices. QMSA also has several advantages over previous conduction analysis techniques in that QMSA is fully automated, it does not require advance sample information, and it simultaneously provides individual carrier density and mobility (not an average over all the carriers).
Standard sample resistance ranges from 0.04 mΩ to 200 GΩ
Fields to 9 Tesla
Temperatures from 2 K to 400 K
Measure up to 4 samples consecutively without a hardware change
Quantitative Mobility Spectrum Analysis (QMSA) resolves individual carrier mobilities and densities in multi-carrier devices
Lake Shore's fully integrated vibrating sample magnetometers (VSM) are used to characterise the DC magnetic properties of materials as a function of magnetic field, temperature, and time. Two model ranges are available, offering fields up to 3.42 T, Lake Shore VSM systems are the most sensitive electromagnet-based VSMs commercially available and feature the broadest temperature range capability: 4.2 K to 1,273 K (-269 °C to 1000 °C). These systems measure a wide range of sample types, making them ideal tools for the most demanding materials research applications and quality control of magnetic materials.
An assortment of options, including low temperature cryostats, a high temperature oven, a single stage variable temperature assembly, vector coils, autorotation, an MR probe, and a Helmholtz coil expand the functionality of Lake Shore VSM systems.
8600 series VSM
The new 8600 Series VSM raises the bar for magnetometer performance and convenience by combining high sensitivity, rapid measurement speeds, and ease of operation for faster and more accurate measurements: see this whitepaper for in-depth details.
The entire 8600 Series system has been re-imagined with a focus on a clean, ergonomic design that simplifies the researcher’s interaction with the system. For example, a motorised head brings the sample to a comfortable height for easy, one-handed exchange of the sample rods.
0.15 × 10-7 emu noise floor at 10 s/pt
10 ms/pt data acquisition rate
Up to 10,000 Oe/s field ramp rate
Rapid, repeatable temperature option exchange
High stability: ± 0.05% per day
Fields to 3.26 T
Widest available temperature range: 4.2 to 1273 K
Temperature options include a cryostat, high-temperature oven, and single stage variable temperature insert. The combined temperature range of the options is 4.2 to 1273 K, and all three options quickly slide into place and are auto-detected by the system's software.
The 8600: Quick Look video
A more in-depth video with Brad Dodrill, Lake Shore's VP of Sales and their Senior Scientist, discussing the components, features and versatility of the system, while also demonstrating the ease of operation and measurement speed, can be viewed here.
7400-S series VSM
Lake Shore's 7400 series Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) features a noise floor of 1 x 10-7 emu at 10 seconds per point sampling, 4 x 10-7 emu at 1 second per point and 7.5 x 10-7 emu at 0.1 seconds per point. It also offers a stability of 0.05% per day, which surpasses the stability of many other commercial VSMs.
Models based on variable gap 4", 7" and 10" electromagnets are available providing field strengths to 3.42 T, and variable gap magnets allow for easy reconfiguration of the magnet gap to accommodate large samples to 1". Full details of these products can be found in the VSM Catalogue downloadable from the Documents menu upper right.
Lake Shore's Vibrating Sample Magnetometer systems can measure all types of magnetic materials in bulk, powder, thin film, single crystal, and liquid form.
In addition to measuring hysteresis M(H) loops, torque curves, and temperature dependent magnetic properties, isothermal and DC demagnetisation remanence curves may be recorded under full software automation.